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Photo by Scott Moore

President Obama to host the 2012
White House Tribal Nations Conference

By Jenice Johnson, assistant director of marketing

Follow Jenice on Twitter @tankabar
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Some of our friends at Thunder Valley Community Development Corporation are in Washington, D.C., this week for business -- some of which includes the 2012 White House Tribal Nations Conference.

Scott Moore and Nick Tilsen of Thunder Valley CDC in the atrium of the Department of Transportation in D.C.

The following about the conference was posted today by Charles Galbraith, an Associate Director of the Office of Public Engagement, and an enrolled member of the Navajo Nation.


On December 5, 2012, President Obama will host representatives invited from each of the 566 federally recognized American Indian tribes, and Alaska Native Villages, at the 2012 White House Tribal Nations Conference. Fulfilling a commitment to improve and expand dialog with Indian Country, the President has hosted a Tribal Nations Conference in each year of his Presidency to facilitate a lasting discussion between Tribal Leaders and Senior Administration Officials.

The opening and closing sessions of the Conference will be available for live online viewing at and also at

The expected agenda is as follows

Opening Session, 9-10:30 a.m. EST

Secretary Ken Salazar, Department of the Interior

Secretary Arne Duncan, Department of Education

Deputy Secretary Neal Wolin, Department of the Treasury
Secretary Rebecca Blank, Department of Commerce

Secretary Kathleen Sebelius, Department of Health and Human Services

Secretary Tom Vilsack, Department of Agriculture

Closing Session, 1:30-3:30 p.m. EST

Leaders of Each Tribal Leaders Breakout Session

Secretary Ray LaHood, Department of Transportation

Secretary Hilda Solis, Department of Labor

President Barack Obama

The White House Tribal Nations Conference is the cornerstone of the Administration's outreach and engagement with tribal governments and the dialogue and lessons learned will help shape federal policy in the weeks, months and years to come. We would like to sincerely thank all tribal leaders who will be taking part in the White House Tribal Nations Conference and we look forward to our continued collaboration and dialogue.

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Danielcow on Mon Oct 9, 2017 12:2:57
?Chapter Outline
I. Overview of Rogers's Person-Centered Theory Although Carl Rogers is right known given that the founder of client-centered therapy, he also developed an important theory of personality that underscores his tactic to therapy.
II. Biography of Carl Rogers Carl Rogers was born into a devoutly religious family within a Chicago suburb in 1902. After the family moved to some farm near Chicago, Carl became interested in scientific farming and learned to appreciate the scientific method. When he graduated from the University of Wisconsin, Rogers intended to become a minister, but he gave up that notion and completed a Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University in 1931. In 1940, after nearly a dozen years absent from an academic life working as a clinician, he took a position at Ohio State University. Later, he held positions within the University of Chicago plus the University of Wisconsin. In 1964, he moved to California where he helped found the Center for Studies with the Person. He died in 1987 at age 85.
III. Person-Centered Theory Rogers carefully crafted his person-centered theory of personality to meet his have demands for a structural design that could explain and predict outcomes of client-centered therapy. However, the theory has implications far beyond the therapeutic setting. A. Essential Assumptions Person-centered theory rests on two important assumptions: (1) the formative tendency, which states that all matter, each organic and inorganic, tends to evolve from simpler to alot more complex sorts, and (two) an actualizing tendency, which suggests that all living things, which includes humans, tend to move toward completion, or fulfillment of potentials. However, in order for people (or plants and animals) to become actualized, certain identifiable conditions must be current. For a person, these conditions include a relationship with another person who is genuine, or congruent, and who demonstrates comprehensive acceptance and empathy for that person. B. The Self and Self-Actualization A feeling of self or personal identity begins to emerge during infancy, and, once established, it enables a person to strive toward self-actualization, which can be a subsystem from the actualization tendency and refers to the tendency to actualize the self as perceived in awareness. The self has two subsystems: (1) the self-concept, which involves all those aspects of one's identity that are perceived in awareness, and (two) the ideal self, or our look at of our self as we would like to be or aspire to be. Once formed, the self concept tends to resist change, and gaps amongst it plus the ideal self result in incongruence and unique concentrations of psychopathology.
C. Awareness People are aware of the two their self-concept and their ideal self, although awareness really want not be accurate or in a substantial degree. Rogers saw people as having experiences on three degrees of awareness: (1) those that are symbolized below the threshold of awareness and are either ignored or denied, that could be, subceived, or not allowed into the self-concept; (two) those that are distorted or reshaped to fit it into an present self-concept; and (3) those that are consistent with the self-concept and thus are accurately symbolized and freely admitted to the self-structure. Any know-how not consistent with the self-concept-even positive experiences-will be distorted or denied. D. Needs The two general human needs are maintenance and enhancement, but people also demand positive regard and self-regard. Maintenance needs include those for food, air, and safety, however they also include our tendency to resist change and to take care of our self-concept as it is. Enhancement needs include needs to grow and to realize one's extensive human potential. As awareness of self emerges, an infant begins to acquire positive regard from another person-that is, to be loved or accepted. People naturally value those experiences that satisfy their needs for positive regard, but, unfortunately, this value on occasion becomes considerably more powerful than the reward they get for meeting their organismic needs. This sets up the condition of incongruence, which is knowledgeable when primary organismic needs are denied or distorted in favor of needs to be loved or accepted. As a result of experiences with positive regard, people build up the will be needing for self-regard, which they acquire only after they perceive that someone else cares for them and values them. Once established, however, self-regard becomes autonomous and no longer dependent on another's continuous positive evaluation. E. Conditions of Worth Most people are not unconditionally accepted. Instead, they get conditions of worth; which is, they actually feel that they are loved and accepted only when and if they meet the conditions established by others. F. Psychological Stagnation If the organismic self additionally, the self-concept are at variance with an individual another, a person may know-how incongruence, which contains vulnerability, threat, defensiveness, and even disorganization. The greater the incongruence around self-concept additionally, the organismic working experience, the much more vulnerable that person becomes. Anxiety exists whenever the person becomes dimly aware in the discrepancy concerning organismic know-how and self-concept, whereas threat is dealt with whenever the person becomes a bit more clearly aware of this incongruence. To prevent incongruence, people react with defensiveness, typically inside the kinds of distortion and denial. With distortion, people misinterpret an practical knowledge so that it fits into their self-concept; with denial, people refuse to make it easy for the expertise into awareness. When people's defenses fail to operate properly, their behavior becomes disorganized or psychotic. With disorganization, people every so often behave consistently with their organismic knowledge and many times in accordance with their shattered self-concept.
IV. Psychotherapy For client-centered psychotherapy to be effective, certain conditions are necessary: A vulnerable client must have contact of some duration which has a counselor who is congruent, and who demonstrates unconditional positive regard and listens with empathy to some client. The client must in turn perceive the congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy within the therapist. If these conditions are existing, then the routine of therapy will take site and certain predictable outcomes will result. A. Conditions Three conditions are crucial to client-centered therapy, and Rogers called them the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic growth. The to start with is counselor congruence, or a therapist whose organismic experiences are matched by an awareness and by the ability and willingness to openly express these feelings. Congruence is far more primary than another two conditions for the reason that it may be a relatively stable characteristic on the therapist, whereas the opposite two conditions are minimal into a particular therapeutic relationship. Unconditional positive regard exists once the therapist accepts the client without conditions or qualifications. Empathic listening is the therapist's ability to perception the feelings of the client and also to communicate these perceptions so that the client knows that another person has entered into his or her world of feelings without prejudice, projection, or evaluation. B. Approach Rogers saw the plan of therapeutic change as taking location in seven stages: (1) clients are unwilling to communicate anything about themselves; (two) they discuss only external events and other people; (3) they begin to talk about themselves, but however as an object; (four) they discuss formidable emotions that they have felt during the past; (5) they begin to express existing feelings; (6) they freely make it possible for into awareness those experiences that were being previously denied or distorted; and (7) they adventure irreversible change and growth. C. Outcomes When client-centered therapy is successful, clients become far more congruent, less defensive, significantly more open to expertise, plus much more realistic. The gap somewhere between their ideal self and their true self narrows and, as a consequence, clients expertise less physiological and psychological tension. Finally, clients' interpersonal relationships improve as a result of they are greater accepting of self and others.
V. The Person of Tomorrow Rogers was vitally interested inside of the psychologically healthy person, called the "fully functioning person" or the "person of tomorrow." Rogers listed seven characteristics for the person of tomorrow. The person of tomorrow (1) is able to adjust to change, (two) is open to expertise, (3) is able to live fully inside of the moment, (four) is able to have harmonious relations with others, (5) is a little more integrated with no artificial boundaries amongst conscious and unconscious processes, (6) has a common trust of human nature, and (7) enjoys a greater richness in life. The factors have implications both of those for your individual and for society.
VI. Philosophy of Science Rogers agreed with Maslow that scientists must care about and be involved inside phenomena they study which psychologists should limit their objectivity and precision to their methodology, not to the generation of hypotheses or to the communication of research findings.
VII. The Chicago Study When he taught on the University of Chicago, Rogers, along with colleagues and graduate students, conducted a sophisticated and complex study around the effectiveness of psychotherapy. A. Hypotheses This study tested four broad hypotheses. As a consequence of therapy (1) clients will become a whole lot more aware of their feelings and experiences, (two) the gap among the real self together with the ideal self will lessen; (3) clients' behavior will become alot more socialized and mature; and (four) clients will become equally greater self-accepting and even more accepting of others. B. Method Participants ended up adults who sought therapy for the University of Chicago counseling center. Experimenters asked fifty percent of these to wait sixty days before receiving therapy when beginning therapy with one other fifty percent. Furthermore, they tested a control group of "normals" who were being matched with the therapy group. This control group was also divided into a wait group together with a non-wait group. C. Findings Rogers and his associates found that the therapy group-but not the wait group-showed a lessening from the gap somewhere between real self and ideal self. They also found that clients who improved during therapy-but not those rated as least improved-showed changes in social behavior, as noted by friends. D. Summary of Successes Although client-centered therapy was successful in changing clients, it was not successful in bringing them to the degree with the fully functioning persons or even to the amount of "normal" psychological health.
VIII. Related Research Alot more not long ago, other researchers have investigated Rogers's facilitative conditions both of those outdoors therapy and inside of therapy. A. Facilitative Conditions Exterior Therapy Within the United Kingdom, Duncan Cramer has conducted a series of studies investigating the therapeutic qualities of Rogers's facilitative conditions in interpersonal relationships outdoors of therapy. Cramer found positive relationships involving self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, as well as four facilitative conditions that make up the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory-level of regard, unconditionality of regard, congruence, and empathy. Moreover, the direction within the relationship strongly suggested that Rogers's facilitative conditions precede the acquisition of higher concentrations of self-esteem. B. Facilitative Conditions and Couples Therapy In Belgium, Alfons Vansteenwegen (1996) chosen a revised type on the Barrett-Lennard to determine if Rogers's facilitative conditions related to success during couples therapy. He found that client-centered couples therapy can bring about positive changes in couples, which several of these changes lasted for at least seven years after therapy.
IX. Critique of Rogers Rogers's person-centered theory is just one on the most carefully constructed of all personality theories, and it meets really very well just about every within the six criteria of the useful theory. It rates very great on internal consistency and parsimony, huge on its ability to be falsified and to generate research, and high-average on its ability to organize knowledge and to serve as a guide to the practitioner.
X. Concept of Humanity Rogers believed that humans have the capacity to change and grow-provided that certain necessary and sufficient conditions are existing. Therefore, his theory rates very superior on optimism. On top of that, it rates large on f-r-e-e choice, teleology, conscious motivation, social influences, and also uniqueness of your individual.